Three 2-3L, 2-3R and 3-3R out of the seven orally infected animals were monitored up to 33 weeks. Discussion We reported here a proof-of-concept protocol to track virus infection from mucosal sites including the oral cavity, the vaginal and anal canals, which are applicable to clinical settings. Frequent and very large numbers of atypical squamous cells with ribbon like central chromatin and abundant amphophilic cytoplasm resembling inclusion were found after 20 weeks post-infection Fig. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. Cervical human papillomavirus detection is not affected by menstrual phase Sex Transm Infect 89 202—206 10. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection. Two 1-3L and 1-3R of five anally infected animals were followed up to 23 weeks post-infection.
Grooming may play a role in the spread of the virus shed from the mucosal sites to the cutaneous sites. Nude mice infected at these sites with infectious MmuPV1 were tracked for up to 23 weeks starting at 6 weeks post-infection. To further strengthen cervical and anal cancer screening efforts, self-sampling techniques for the collection of cervical and anal cells have been proposed as an effective alternative to overcome these limitations. Viral detection in the anal tract Our previous studies demonstrated active infection at the anal infection site, denne linken at the transformation zone area Cladel et al. A typical oestrous cycle stage determination result is shown in Table S1. Abnormal cell identification from the lavage samples at different oestrous cycle stages The oestrous cycle as well kilde cytological changes due to viral infection can be monitored by collecting moden vaginal anal onani lavages Cladel et al. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection.
In contrast, pseudoviruses contained mostly cellular DNA our unpublished observations Holmgren et al. However, false-negative results may occur due to sampling error Liu et al. We not only detected abnormal cells from these samples but also confirmed that some of these abnormal cells were viral positive Cladel et al. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. All mice were treated with Depo-Provera at 3 days before the viral infection.
Dec;96(12) doi: /jgv Tracking vaginal, anal and oral infection in a mouse papillomavirus infection model. Hu J(1).